Women are a
major stakeholder in the development project of any society. Globally, the issues
of Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) have been attracting a lot of
attention from scholars. According to 2006 Nigerian population census figure,
women constituted 49% of the total population, but there has been a gross gender
gap between men and women, especially in political representation, management
the gross gender gap between men and women, Women still engage in developmental
activities for the growth of the society. In southeast Nigeria, community based
women associations played major roles in the development of their community for
genital mutilation (FGM) is defined as “all procedures that involve the partial
or total removal of the external female genitalia or any other injury to the
female genital organs for non-medical reasons”.
words, it is any procedure that causes injury to the female genitals without
Health Organization (@WHO), classifies FGM into four broad types, based on the
anatomical extent of the procedure: …
Type I (Clitoridectomy): This refers
to the partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (the fold of
skin covering the clitoris). This is also referred to as ‘Sunna’.
Type II (Excision): Removal (in part or whole) of
the clitoris and labia minora. The labia majora may or may not be removed.
Type III (Infibulation): Here, the
vaginal orifice is narrowed, and a covering seal created by cutting and repositioning
the labia minora and/or the labia majora. The clitoris may also be removed. It
is sometimes referred to as ‘Pharaonic’.
Type IV (Unclassified): Any other
harmful procedure performed on the female genitalia for non-medical purposes,
for example: pricking, piercing and incision of the clitoris and/or labia,
stretching and/or cutting of the vagina (‘gishiri’), scraping of tissue
surrounding the vaginal opening (‘angurya’) and cauterization.
includes the introduction of corrosive substances into the vagina to cause
bleeding or to tighten or narrow the vagina, as well as massaging the clitoris
with hot water or petroleum jelly to de-sensitize the clitoris (common in Imo
as a self-enforcing social convention or social norm. In societies where it is
practiced, it is a socially upheld behavioural rule.
individuals continue to perform FGM because they believe that their community
expects them to do so.
further expect that if they do not respect the social rule, they will suffer
social consequences such as derision, marginalization and loss of status.
While FGM is
de facto violent, it is not intended as an act of violence. It is considered to
be a necessary step to enable girls to become women and to be accepted,
together with the rest of the family, by the social group of which they are
the removal of or damage to healthy genital tissue interferes with the natural
functioning of the body and may cause severe immediate and long-term negative
health consequences. @WHO
times, the women in southeast Nigeria (Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo
States), have developed various methods and ways of resolving issues that
affects their health and wellbeing.
In southeast Nigeria, women are referred to as “Mgboto” (daughters of the clan) or “Umuada” (first daughters of the family) intheir place of birth. However,at their marital homes, women are called “Ndi Ndomu” (married women within a family, kindred, clan, or community).
The women organize
themselves into community based groups based on the notion of “the daughters of
the clan,” or “Umuada”, who usually
meet on specific occasions or at least once a year. The “Umuada”
are usually the first born daughters in each family.
The “the daughters of the clan,” or “Umuada” help to foster peaceful coexistence within the extended family, the clan, the community, and the town.
The women in southeast Nigeria are also remarkable in
being able to organize themselves around their natal and matrimonial homes.
where a public declaration of FGM abandonment has been made, the Umuada’s can
be trained as surveillance Unit to monitor compliance.
building meeting can also be conducted with the Umuada’s towards FGM
abandonment, where they will reach a consensus that no girl-child born in their
community should be subjected to FGM and pass a notice to all community member
using a town crier.
usually meet and deliberate on actions taken by members of the clan or
community that are perceived to work against community interests or harmony.
Most often the
Umuada’s stage a march and surround the offenders’ houses armed with either
palm fronds or pestles, while singing to inform the inhabitants of their ills
and to urging them to desist from such actions.
This is done
continuously until an offender is made to atone for the offense or succumbs to
their collective demands to change the offensive behaviour.
(first born daughters of the family) also serve as a pivotal link between women
and the clan or community. The “Umuada’s”
also have the power to take action against erring members of the Ndi Ndom or
women married into their community.
go as far as sending unfaithful wives or women deemed to have inflicted
grievous harm on their children or husbands out of their marital homes or imposing
fines on them.
southeast states in Nigeria, women are recognized as great arbiters, peace
brokers, and enforcers.
southeast state’s is in many ways patriarchal, women certainly play supportive
and dynamic roles as midwives to peace in the land of their birth.
strong community group in the southeast Nigeria is the Community-based association
of married women which seeks to address developmental issues of the community
In this married
women’s group, all members are bounded by their laws and the resolutions of
women’s group does not delay in sanctioning any member who violates their rules
and regulations guiding the association or their community.
The married women’s
group is very effective in setting up surveillance team in communities that has
publicly declared FGM abandonment.
women’s group meets every month, and can therefore allocate a few minutes to discuss
about the dangers of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and how it affects them,
and their community.
The UNJP has
been successful working with the married women’s group to prevent, track,
report and monitor cases of FGM in their communities.
Some of the
activities of the married women’s group are to ensure compliance with the
public declaration of FGM abandonment, in Imo State are listed below:
When a member becomes pregnant, the married women’s group
sends a team to visit her family to remind them that the community has
When the member delivers her baby, a Team from the
married women’s group will visit her to confirm the sex of the baby and remind
her not to cut or massage the baby.
If she had a female child, the Team from the married
women’s group will remind the family not to subject her to FGM.
The Team from the married women’s group will return on
the 8th Day to ensure that she will not be cut (which is the day that majority
of the girls are cut in the southeast Nigeria).
If any female child is cut, the Team from the married
women’s group will document the incident and report to the President of the
Women’s Association, who will report to the Traditional Ruler.
The Traditional Ruler will ensure that the Child is
referred for health services, and also notify the partners implementing the
UNJP in Imo State (Ministry of Women Affairs and National Orientation Agency)
using the phone numbers given to them.
married women groups in the Southeast Nigeria meets annually to discuss
developmental issues and plan for the coming year. This meeting is called the
“Annual Home and Abroad meeting” or popularly known as “August Meeting”
meeting” is brings together all the women married into the community from
different parts of the worlds. It is
mandatory for members to attend this meeting, which usually takes place in
August each year.
Meeting” helps foster bonding, unity, and a sense of belonging between the women
and other women who have married into their community.
Apart from intervening to resolve family or
community conflicts, women also engage in community development projects,
contribute to scholarship funds to support the education of indigent members of
the communities, and combat violence against women.
Annual “August Meeting”, the women uses this opportunity to remind community
members both home and abroad about the dangers of FGM and the need to abandon
initiatives by the married women’s group, during the “August Meeting” include
setting up self-help projects to engage youths meaningfully.
and affluent members also use the opportunity to establish trust funds,
voluntary medical services, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to support
the vulnerable and poor members of the community.
unmarried women look up to these women as their role models and mentors, who in
turn live up to their roles and educate the youngsters on the society’s
expectations of them.
the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Elimination of FGM in Nigeria has been
supporting the National Orientation Agency (NOA) to use the platform of the
annual “August Meeting” to sensitize women about FGM in Imo and Ebonyi State in
conclusion, if the two associations of women (“Umuada”/the first born daughters and “Ndi Ndom”/women married into the community) can be fully engaged in
the UNJP campaign in all States in southeast Nigeria, FGM will be eliminated in
the this generation.
more about the @endcuttinggirls Social Media Campaign to end FGM, please visit
endcuttinggirls.org and follow our social media handles on Facebook, Twitter,
Instagram and YouTube, using @endcuttinggirls
point, I will end the presentation to give room for questions and contributions
from participants. Thank you all for reading our tweets