TWEET CONFERENCE SCRIPT: Strengthening Community-level Surveillance Systems for Monitoring Compliance to commitments made during Public Declarations of the Abandonment of FGM (PDAs) in Nigeria – 21.03.2019
the world, over 200 million girls and women have undergone at least one of the
four forms of female genital mutilation.
this 200 million, 10% are Nigerians and they are people we have at one time or
the other come across in our daily endeavour.
whole number is an enormous number considering the population distribution of
Nigeria, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2016 -2017) has revealed
that18.4% of women aged 15-49 years had undergone FGM; a decrease from 27% in
2011. Conversely, the national FGM
prevalence among daughters aged 0-14 years increased from 19.2% (2011) to 25.3%
evening, I am @dareadaramoye your host for today’s twitter conference.
topic for today is “Strengthening
Community-level Surveillance Systems for Monitoring Compliance to commitments
made during Public Declarations of the Abandonment of FGM (PDAs) in Nigeria.”
We will highlight
strategies that communities can deploy to ensure that community members do not
return to the practice after a PDA.
genital mutilation (FGM) otherwise known as female genital cutting or female
circumcision is defined as “all procedures that involve the partial or total
removal of the external female genitalia, or any other injury to the female
genital organs for non-medical reasons”.
other words Female genital mutilation (FGM) is any procedure that causes injury
to the female genitals without medical indication.
World Health Organization (WHO), classifies FGM into four broad types, and
subgroups, based on the anatomical extent of the procedure, and they are all
practices in Nigeria: …
I: partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce
of Type I FGM are: type Ia, removal of the clitoral hood or prepuce only; type
Ib, removal of the clitoris with the prepuce.
II: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or
without excision of the labia majora (excision).
of Type II FGM are: type IIa, removal of the labia minora only; type IIb,
partial or total removal of the clitoris and labia minora; type IIc, partial or
total removal of the clitoris, labia minora and labia majora.
III: narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by
cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or
without excision of the clitoris (infibulation).
of Type III FGM are: type IIIa, removal and apposition of the labia minora;
type IIIb, removal and apposition of the labia majora.
is covered under this definition. This is a procedure to recreate an
infibulation, for example after childbirth when defibulation is necessary.
IV: unclassified – all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for
nonmedical purposes, for example, pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and
functions as a self-enforcing social convention or social norm. In societies
where it is practiced, it is a socially upheld behavioural rule.
and individuals continue to perform FGM because they believe that their
community expects them to do so.
further expect that if they do not respect the social rule, they will suffer
social consequences such as derision, marginalization and loss of status.
FGM is de facto violent, it is not intended as an act of violence. It is
considered to be a necessary step to enable girls to become women and to be
accepted, together with the rest of the family, by the social group of which
they are part.
the removal of or damage to healthy genital tissue interferes with the natural
functioning of the body and may cause severe immediate and long-term negative
“UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Global Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Abandonment: Accelerating Change” was launched in 2007 to provide financial and
technical support to countries.
joined the UN Joint Programme (UNJP) in December 2013.
2014, Implementation of Phase II of the UNJP began in Ebonyi, Ekiti, Imo, Osun,
Oyo and Lagos states with a joint FGM Situation Assessment.
states were chosen on the basis of high prevalence for FGM based on the NDHS
of FGM (NDHS 2013) – National 25%, Osun (77%), Ebonyi (74%), Ekiti (72%), Imo
(68%), Oyo (66%), Lagos (35%)
joint programme which is currently on Phase III, which is UNFPA-UNICEF Joint
Programme on Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: Accelerating Change has
recorded numerous achievements across the 5 implementing states.
of such major achievements of the UNJP is Public Declaration of FGM abandonment
in 415 communities in 4 focus states (Ekiti, Imo, Osun and Oyo) in 2018.
Public declaration of abandonment of FGM is a defined as “formal public
ceremonies involving one or more communities-typically villages but
increasingly also districts and ethnic groups-that take part in an event where
they manifest through their representatives, the specific commitment to abandon
is the result of months and months of awareness, sensitization, education, and Community
Dialogues, Consensus Building and series of activities.
Declaration of FGM abandonment reflects the courage of the communities to speak
out against almost 2,000 year old practice that is taboo in many societies.
declarations has a multiplier effect as people have a chance to speak out and
reach a consensus against FGM. People are likely to abandon FGM when they
expunge the practice openly.
can watching Videos of our Public Declaration of FGM via the Following links
are different levels of public declaration depending on the population size of
the group making the declaration. But generally, FGM abandonment public
declaration have a high potential of leading to other public declarations.
declaration does not mean that the declaring community is free from FGM, rather
it represents a milestone in the process of abandonment because it signals the
change in social expectations.
secured public declaration, it is important to strengthen the community systems
to monitor it and ensure that community do not return to the practice after
communities can deploy to ensure that community members do not return to the
practice after a PDA includes the following:
Surveillance Team such as Community-based Child Protection Committee (CBCPC) in
the Communities where Public Declaration of FGM have been achieved to monitor
order to sustain children’s protection from #FGM, violence, exploitation and
abuse, the establishment of Community-Based Child Protection Committees and
Networks (CBCPNs) is very key.
CBCPC normally serves as a forum where community members meet, discuss child
protection problems and research solutions. It is thus an informal community
structure, representing all sectors in the community who have a role to play in
protecting children – including children themselves.
bringing concrete solutions to the situation of individual children and young
people, they also serve as platforms for holding duty-bearers accountable for
promoting child rights, protecting children from violence and minors in
conflict with the law.
CBCPC are closer to the community than the national authorities, in terms of
detecting and following-up cases, and mutual respect between different
They speak the same local language and share the same community culture and
Children are their own, which means that they will put more efforts into
looking after them and protecting them from FGM.”
are created through consulting and receiving approval from the community
leaders. Then, active community members who are willing to work for community
affairs are chosen.
are people accepted in the community and have no past issues related to the Child
setting up the CBCPC, they should be trained on the following topics: child
rights, Child Protection Policy, child protection, communication with children,
case detection, following-up and referral, and other related topics.”
CBCPCs will then monitor all birth of Female Children in the Communities and
also act as surveillance that ensure that Female Children are not genitally
mutilated by Traditional Circumcisers and health Workers.
the social norms shift via interpersonal communication within and between
social networks e.g. age grade.
social media and mass media campaign that supports dialogue rather than transmits
sessions with ex-cutters to educate them about FGM and how to identify
alternative sources of income
and popularise a telephone helpline for reporting suspected FGM-related issues
all girls that have not undergone FGM as a mechanism for monitoring progress
and protecting the girls. #endcuttinggirls
Declaration is the most significant/decisive step in the campaign to end FGM, therefore
we must strengthen community systems to monitor and enforce FGM abandonment
after a public declaration”
for joining us today, kindly re-tweet this trend as we respond to your
implore you to join us every other Thursday 5-7pm. Visit our website
www.endcuttinggirls.org and kindly follow the handle “@Endcuttinggirls’’ on all
social media platforms.