In Nigeria, the prevalence
of FGM in women aged 15–49 is 24.8%. 20 million women and girls in Nigeria have
undergone FGM. This represents 10% of
the global total.
Today, our focus will be on “A
Comprehensive approach to ending Medicalization of FGM in Nigeria”
For the sake of those hearing
FGM for the very first time, we shall have a brief introduction on the issue.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) otherwise known as female genital cutting or female circumcision is defined as “all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or any other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons”.
In other words Female genital mutilation (FGM) is any procedure that causes injury to the
female genitals without medical indication.
The World Health Organization
(), classifies FGM into four broad types, and subgroups, based on the
anatomical extent of the procedure, and they are all practices in Nigeria: …
Type I: partial or total
removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (Clitoridectomy).
Subgroups of Type I FGM are: type Ia, removal
of the clitoral hood or prepuce only; type Ib, removal of the clitoris with the
Type II: partial or total
removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the
labia majora (excision).
Subgroups of Type II FGM are: type IIa,
removal of the labia minora only; type IIb, partial or total removal of the
clitoris and labia minora; type IIc, partial or total removal of the clitoris,
labia minora and labia majora.
Type III: narrowing of the
vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning
the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris
Subgroups of Type III FGM are: type IIIa, removal and apposition of the
labia minora; type IIIb, removal and apposition of the labia majora.
Reinfibulation is covered under this definition. This is a procedure to
recreate an infibulation, for example after childbirth when defibulation is
Type IV: unclassified – all
other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for nonmedical purposes, for
example, pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.
FGM functions as a
self-enforcing social convention or social norm. In societies where it is
practiced, it is a socially upheld behavioural rule.
Families and individuals
continue to perform FGM because they believe that their community expects them
to do so.
Families further expect that
if they do not respect the social rule, they will suffer social consequences
such as derision, marginalization and loss of status.
While FGM is de facto violent,
it is not intended as an act of violence. It is considered to be a necessary
step to enable girls to become women and to be accepted, together with the rest
of the family, by the social group of which they are part.
Moreover, the removal of or
damage to healthy genital tissue interferes with the natural functioning of the
body and may cause severe immediate and long-term negative health consequences.
A 2017 research by shows that in Nigeria, FGM is still largely
performed by traditional cutters (traditional circumcisers and TBAs), but there
is evidence that families, instead of abandoning the practice, are opting for
more medicalised forms.
WHO defines FGM medicalisation as ‘situations in
which FGM is practiced by any category of health-care provider, whether in a
public or a private clinic, at home or elsewhere.
Medicalization of FGM also
includes the procedure of re-infibulation at any point in time in a woman’s
Although medicalisation is
presumed to reduce risks of complications, it does not eliminate them, and does
not change the fact that FGM is a violation of girls’ and women’s rights to life,
health, bodily integrity, and freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or
Several other frequent
assumptions about medicalisation include sharply rising rates of
medicalisation, that it does or does not minimise the degree of cutting, and
that it does or does not legitimise the practice.
Nigeria Demographic Health
Survey (NDHS 2013) reveals that 11.9 percent of girls (ages 0 to 14) and 12.7
percent of women (ages 15 to 49) were “circumcised” by a medical professional.
The NDHS 2013 also reveals that medicalization
of FGM in State like Imo State-61%; Delta State-28.9%; Ekiti State-26.2% and
Orubuloye et al (2000) noted
rapid medicalisation among the Ekiti Yorubas, as health providers (mostly
nurses) were increasingly performing FGM.
Orubuloye et al (2000) observed
that nurses were practicing a less extensive form (nicking) to minimise complications
and limit the amount of attention any complications would draw to their
A study of 250 health workers
in southwestern Nigeria found that almost half (48.4%) had been asked to
perform FGM (Adekanle et al 2011). It is important to note that medicalisation of FGM in Nigeria is
occurring within a health system that is weak and plagued by poor coordination…
The fragmentation of services,
insufficient resources including drugs and supplies, inadequate and decaying
infrastructure, inequity in resource distribution and access to care, and very
poor quality of care (Adeloye et al 2017, Welcome 2011). The Nigerian health system is
also ineffectively regulated which contributes to the existence of phenomena
such as non-trained or unlicensed individuals providing health services to an
Also trained health
providers are violating professional and/or health facility norms by engaging
in unethical behavior like the provision of FGM. The performance of FGM by
health-care providers, despite the global recognition of FGM as a harmful
practice and a violation of human rights, constitutes a break in medical
professionalism and ethical responsibility. In Nigeria, it also constitutes a
violation of the law.
The involvement of health-care providers in the performance of FGM is
likely to create a sense of legitimacy for the practice. It gives the
impression that the procedure is good for health, or at least that it is
Medicalization of FGM can further contribute to institutionalization of
the practice, rendering it a routine procedure and even leading to its spread
into cultural groups that currently do not practice it.
Furthermore, the medicalization of FGM may lead to some health-care
providers developing a professional and financial interest in upholding the
practice. Performance of FGM by health-care providers contributes to upholding
the practice of FGM. Medicalized FGM is not necessarily safer or less
extensive. It also ignores the long-term complications of the practice,
including sexual, psychological and obstetrical complications that have been
found to be associated with FGM, independently of who performs it.
Also there is no evidence to suggest that medicalization of FGM serves
as a first step towards full abandonment.
Why reinﬁbulation should be prevented Reinfibulation recreates, usually
several times during a woman’s life, the (removed) tight vaginal introitus of
the original infibulation.
This recreates the same problems of gynaecological, sexual and
reproductive health, including difficulties associated with childbirth and the
need for further surgeries that the original infibulation had created. This
consequently repeats and increases the suffering for girls and women.
To end medicalization fo FGM, a comprehensive approach need to be
Health-care providers should not perform any type of
FGM in any setting – neither should they perform reinfibulation after delivery
or in any other situation.
Health-care providers should provide care for girls
and women suffering from complications associated with FGM, including special
care during childbirth for women who have already undergone FGM.
Health-care providers should
counsel women suffering consequences from FGM, and their families.
Health-care providers should advise them to seek
care for their complications and mental health consequences, advise them
against reinfibulation, and counsel them to resist having FGM performed on
their daughters or other family members.
Health-care providers should also act as advocates for
the abandonment of the practice in the community at large.
When providing care to migrant women and in cases of limited language
skills, health-care providers should have access to cultural interpreters
specifically trained on FGM. This will ensure that counselling to women and
families is adequate and done with respect for their cultural beliefs.
Nigeria should set priorities and develop specific plans of action
according to the country situation, within a consultative process involving all
To end medicalization of FGM, Nigeria should adopt the Four overarching activities listed in the
Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing FGM, which are:…
Mobilize political will and funding
Strengthen the understanding and knowledge of
create supporting legislative and regulatory framework
strengthen monitoring, evaluation and accountability.
will and funding: Political will and funding are necessary to ensure the development and
sustained implementation of policies, guidelines, and laws. Necessary actions
in this area are to: build strong advocacy support for investment in supporting
the abandonment of FGM, engaging political leaders, other leaders,
parliamentarians and government ministries. mobilize and coordinate the efforts
of key stakeholders to support a national policy against the medicalization of
FGM. This includes parliamentarians,
healthcare providers, legal experts, human rights groups, government
ministries, political leaders and parties, professional organizations,
religious and community leaders, including leaders of migrant communities, and
other persons of influence
Advocate for sustained and coordinated planning, budgeting and actions
for key stakeholders.
Advocate for the establishment of a sustainable, co-coordinated public
and private partnership in financing FGM-abandonment programmes.
(ii) Strengthen the
understanding and knowledge of health-care providers: A prerequisite for
preventing the medicalization of FGM is that all health-care providers should be
familiar with: factors surrounding the practice of FGM. Health-care providers
should be equipped with the reasons why FGM should not be performed by
health-care providers and how to resist requests to do so from parents. Health-care providers should be equipped with
how to recognize and manage complications of FGM, including suitable obstetric
care; and how to counsel women and families on FGM-related issues.
Guidelines should be in place, including medical, ethical and legal
information, such as how to counsel and care for girls and women who have
undergone FGM, including counseling against reinfibulation.
Deeply rooted discriminatory norms and practices that underlie FGM,
including sexual concerns and eventual religious underpinnings, should be
addressed, where relevant, when designing training programmes and developing
Training should also cover the
social conventional nature of the practice to enable health-care providers to
appreciate how medicalization will reinforce the social convention and
perpetuate the harm.
Training should also cover how they can play a key role in helping practicing
communities to abandon the practice and permanently remove the risk of future
Necessary actions in this area are: appropriate national authorities
should develop national guidelines for various health-care providers on how to
deal with issues related to FGM, including how to care for complications and on
how to resist pressure to perform any form of FGM, including reinfibulation.
Training modules on FGM for inclusion in pre- and in-service curricula
and training, including refresher courses and updates for all health-care
providers, should be developed. This includes nurses, midwives, and medical
doctors as well as various health outreach workers.
Training of health-care providers should be integrated at the community
level with other community-based activities promoting the abandonment of FGM.
supportive legislative and regulatory frameworks: States should adopt,
implement and enforce specific legislation addressing FGM, in order to affirm
their commitment to stopping the practice and to ensure women’s and girls’
human rights. Alternatively, existing laws should be enforced in the absence of
specific legislation on FGM, such as Child-Right laws, VAPP Law and FGM Laws.
To avoid defiance and the practice going underground, it is important
that all legal action takes into account the degree of social acceptance of the
practice. A broader initiative that includes direct activities to empower
practicing communities to abandon the practice should be considered.
Health-care providers should be informed without delay about human
rights and ethical perspectives as well as the harmful consequences of FGM, and
that performing FGM, including reinfibulation, would give rise to civil and
Appropriate ethical guidelines on FGM should be incorporated into the
training curricula of health-care providers.
The Ministry of Health and
professional regulatory bodies should issue a joint policy statement against
the medicalization of FGM, and laws and policies and/ or the application of
existing laws. Policies should address
the role health-care providers play in the elimination of FGM and forbid the
performance of any type of FGM, including reinfibulation.
Training on how to deal with medicalization of FGM should also be
provided to juridical staff and law-enforcement and security personnel.
Professional organizations should adopt and disseminate clear standards
condemning the practice of any type of FGM and issue firm guidelines for their
members not to perform FGM, and not to accept or support its practice.
Licensed health-care practitioners must be subject to the maximum
available criminal penalties that apply to anyone performing FGM. Offending
practitioners may be suspended or their licences withdrawn if they perform FGM.
Women and girls should be educated about their human rights and be
empowered to access legal remedies specified by law to prevent FGM.
Women and girls should have the right to bring civil action suits to
seek compensation from practitioners, or to protect themselves from undergoing
FGM. Wherever possible, health-care providers should assist by providing
evidence supporting the claims of the girl or woman who has undergone FGM.
monitoring, evaluation and accountability: Monitoring and evaluation are essential for
improving health-care providers’ approaches to FGM and for refining plans to
promote abandonment of the practice. Government participation is critical for
gathering data and broadening national monitoring mechanisms.
Necessary actions in this area are to:
(1) monitor health-sector training and implement the lessons learned.
(2) develop mechanisms to increase accountability at facility and
(3) routinely collect data on FGM (e.g. antenatal records).
(4) monitor providers of FGM, including legislative measures taken
(5) Nigeria should integrate FGM, including reinfibulation, into
existing monitoring and evaluation systems in the country (sexual and
reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, demographic and health
surveys data collection, etc)
(6) report to UN human rights treaty bodies and other international and
regional human rights bodies; and institutionalize feedback mechanisms to the
In conclusion, all health-care providers take an oath of practice in
line with the Hippocratic Oath and other relevant statements of ensuring no
harm against any patient.
Therefore, Health-care providers
should know and respect the health and human rights aspects of FGM and refrain
from supporting or performing any form of the practice. medicalization of all
forms of FGM violates human right, ethical principle of justice, beneficence
and non maleficience and the medical code of ethics.
To learn more about the Social
Media Campaign to end FGM, please visit endcuttinggirls.org and follow our
social media handles on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, using
References: Suggested Citation: Obianwu, O., Adetunji A., Dirisu O.,
January 2018. “Understanding medicalisation of Female Genital
Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C): a qualitative study of parents and health workers
in Nigeria.” Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Women Thrive. New York:
References: – Global Strategy to end
medicalisation FGM and Joint UNFPA-UNICEF Programme on Eliminating FGM:
At this point, I will end the presentation to give room for questions
and contributions from participants. Thank you all for reading our tweets